& Stunt Terminology
following terms do not cover the whole of film production, but they
may be of use to actors, stuntmen, and coordinators who are unfamiliar
with procedure and terminology on set.
EQUIPMENT & TERMINOLOGY
/ FIGHT TERMINOLOGY
CAST & CREW
CAMERA EQUIPMENT AND OPERATION
GRIP / LIGHTING
EQUIPMENT & TERMINOLOGY
Air Ramp: a pneumatic
catapult device used to toss a body through the air. Activation
is either by touch or trigger.
Airbag: A large bag filled
with air used for high falls - typically anywhere from 30-150 feet.
Breakaway: A prop that
is constructed in such a manner that it will shatter or collapse
easily upon impact (e.g., a disintegrating bottle, a collapsible
chair or window, etc.).
Bump: Additional money
paid to a performer for doing a specific stunt (usually arranged
by the coordinator).
Cowboy Up: Doing something
that you know might hurt.
Crash pad: Normally measuring
4'x 8'x 8", this referrs to any foam-type pad used in a landing.
Egg On Face: not acting
during the scene or waiting for action to happen.
High Fall: Typically any fall over 40 feet.
Low Fall: Any fall below 40 feet, but typically no higher than 20
Faceoff: A fall forwards through the air which twists sideways at
the last moment, landing on the back.
Fireman / Suicide: A fall executed by facing forward, bringing your
legs in front and landing on your back.
Back off: a fall backwards through the air landing on the back.
Header: A Fall executed facing forward and pitching over (3/4 flip)
onto your back.
Branny: Forward flip with a half twist
Flying Harness: See Wire
Gag: short for stunt,
special effect, or special setup
Gatorback: a hard shell
Hot: referring to air
ramps, pyro, or special effects that might be accidentally triggered.
Knap: Sound effect to
simulate hitting another person - usually used onstage for live
Pads: also referred to
as knees / elbows, this is personal protection which can be either
a soft pad or hard shell.
measuring 4' x 8' x 3' deep, this foam pad can usually safely cushion
a fall up to 25 feet.
Ratchet: A rope or wire
used to pull a stuntman in reaction to a gunshot or hit.
Safety / Spotters: Having
people nearby to protect the stuntman from injury.
Suicide: From the ground,
this is a forward ¾ flip onto your back.
Tumbling pad: Usually
a folding mat about an inch thick.
Wire Work: The system
of using wire to "fly" actors and stuntmen. Type of stunt
varies with flying harness, spreader bar, and number of wires wich
can be used to twist or redirect the action.
Assistant Director: Ensures
the production schedule is on track and keeps everything moving.
Associate Producer: This
is normally the person who acts as the liason between a production
company and the various personnel involved in the post production
process. Also a title given to anyone who has made contributions
to the film.
Best Boy: The assistant
chief lighting technician (Gaffer) or the assistant to the key grip.
Bit Part: A minor acting
role in which an actor may only speak a few lines.
Boom Operator: Person
who manipulates the boom.
Camera Operator: In charge
of running the camera.
Camera Assistant: In
charge of loading, unloading camera, and assisting the camera operator.
Casting Director: Hired
by the Ad agency or producer of project to cast talent.
Costume Designer: See
Craft Services: Referring
to the food table or food services.
Director: In charge of
all aspects of production, cast and crew.
Dolly Grip: A camera
crew member who pushes or operates the dolly during a shoot.
Double: A stuntman who
matches a leading actor.
DP - Director of Photography:
Responsible for camera, lighting, and all other aspects of photography.
Extras / Atmosphere /
Background: Extras who are staged and photographed to portray normal
human traffic needed to add detail in various script situations.
First Team: Refers to
principal performers in the scene. Differentiates them from extras
or stand ins who were in for lighting.
Focus Puller: Person
resposible for maintaining focus of the camera.
Gaffer: The chief lighting
technician for a production who is in charge of the electrical department.
Key Grip: The chief grip
who works directly with the gaffer in creating shadow effects for
set lighting and who supervises camera cranes, dollies and other
platforms or supporting structures according to the requirements
of the director of photography.
Location Manager: The
person who sometimes acts as a scout for the purpose of locating
a site for the shooting of particular scenes in a film. After approval
by the director, the manager contracts for its use and arranges
the details of occupancy, such as obtaining permits, protective
services, parking arrangements, etc.
PA - Production Assistant
or Gofer (Gopher): An employee who handles noncreative and nontechnical
tasks - all the dirty work.
Principal / Lead: Actor
who appears in foreground, speaks dialog or reacts to product or
Producer: A production
house or agency person responsible for organizing the production.
The production house producer is usually called a "line producer".
The Agency Producer oversees the preparation, shoot and editing
of the job.
Production Manager: The
person in charge of coordinating and supervising business affairs
involved in the production of a film. The production manager's responsibilities
include, but are not limited to, supervising all financial, administrative
and technical details of the production of a film.
Prop Master: The person
in the crew whose responsibility is to obtain, maintain and place
props on a set throughout the shooting of a film.
Riggers: Members of the
crew responsible for setting in place or building the scaffolds
to support sets, lights, equipment and workers.
Scenics: A person or
persons hired to paint sets, backdrops and apply wall paper as needed.
Sound Man (Sound Mixer):
The person responsible for combining all the sound tracks into the
final composite track. The sound mixer is generally the head person
in the sound department.
Script Supervisor: Also
called continuity. This person is responsible for tracking the script
and making detailed notes on what happens during each scene.
Second Unit: A photographic
team that shoots scenes which do not involve the principal cast,
such as stunts, car chases, or establishing shots.
Second Unit Director:
typically directs all of the action sequences
Still Photographer: A
person who takes still photographs during the production of a film.
The photographs are usually used to publicize the film or the actors.
Stand-in: A person who
doubles an actor for the purpose of scene blocking and lighting.
Stunt / Fight Coordinator:
A person responsible for choreographing and / or coordinating action
Stuntman: A person who
performs stunts or any action considered too dangerous for the actors.
Swordmaster: A specialty
term for sword choreographer and trainer.
Talent: The actors are
referred to as the "talent"
The person who designs the costumes and clothing worn by the characters
in the film.
These are terms you may come across while in the process of shooting
Action: typically called
by the director, but may also be called by the stunt coordinator
for action sequences.
Animatic: An animation
or video technique used to chart the way an actual scene will look
prior to the actual filming of a scene in a film. This process is
especially helpful for prejudging special effects where the final
product cannot be seen until after much work and expense.
Back to one / going again: start from the beginning of action
Blocking: Plotting actor,
camera and microphone placement and movement in a production or
Camera Blocking: The
process of notating the changing position of the camera, lens size,
and focus during a particular scene.
Camera right / left:
right or left of the camera's point of view
Cheat: Direction by director
or camera man to angle your body or face a certain direction. Example:
Please cheat camera left.
Continuity: Making sure
that props, lighting, costumes, action, effects, and all other aspects
of the scene remain cosistent from one shot to the next. Typically
handled by the script supervisor.
Coverage: An indeterminate
number of more detailed shots which are intended to be intercut
with a master shot or scene.
Crossing: a courtesy
announcing to the cameraman that you are crossing in front of the
Crossing the Line: Also
called the 180 degree rule. This states that during filming, the
camera does not cross the plane of action (confusing left to right
or right to left).
Cut: Director calls out
in a shot when he wants all actors, film etc., to cease.
Cue Cards: Dialogue written
on large cardboard sheets for talent to read.
Downstage: The movement
of actor or object closer to camera.
End Marker: A slate at
the end of a take
to everyone that you are taking a flash picture (letting electricians
know that a light didn't burn out).
Gag - short for stunt,
special effect, or special setup
Gate / Checking the gate:
checking for hair or dust in the gate of a film camera.
Hitting your mark: Placing
either your self or a product in a designated area. Marked with
Honeywagon: A portable
toilet trailer for use by cast and crew members on location shoots.
Hot Set: Set is to remain
untouched while it is not being filmed.
In the Can: Successful
take of the shot.
Insert: A part of the
film which may be shot at any time and is generally inserted during
the editing phase of the film.
Marker: The process of
bringing the slate in front of lens to mark the take.
Marks: Also called "comfort
corners," usually shaped like the letter "T" or set
down by tape, these are marks which actors are supposed to hit during
Matching Action: The
process of aligning or overlapping the shots of a film sequence
in order to achieve a smooth transition from the action in one shot
to the action of the succeeding shot.
Prop: Moveable property
which is used in the production of a film (e.g., handguns, motor
vehicles, lamps, books, paintings and clothing). Props also include
cars, taxis, carriages, trucks, etc., when photographed as part
of a scene.
Ready to roll: In sequence
when getting ready to roll film: roll sound, sound speed, roll camera(s),
marker / slate in, background action / action
Roll sound: Instructing
the sound engineer to begin recording sound.
Roll camera: Instruction
the camera operator to begin rolling camera.
Scene: A segment of a
script. Activity within a single time period or locale.
The storyline, dialogue, scenes and directions written for a motion
Sight Line: An imaginary
line that is drawn between a subject and the object that he/she
is looking at.
Slate: The identifier
placed in front of the camera at beginning of a take.
Sound Speed: Called by
sound engineer when tape is rolling up to speed.
Special Effects: Any
special visual effects that are extraordinary and cannot be obtained
with the camera in the normal shooting of a film. Such effects include
adding smoke, fire, air and water in all their various forms, the
use of models or miniatures, explosions, etc. Some special effects
are created during the shooting of the film or added in the post
Stage: Part of a studio
or an outdoor area where sets are erected and the filming of the
production takes place.
Story Board: A series
of drawings or photographs arranged in sequence showing the key
scenes in a film. A visual depiction of the entire film. Used in
animation work and also to aid in planning camera movements for
live action film.
Upstage: move up and
away from camera or end of the stage.
Wrap: refers to securing
equipment at the end of the day or when work is completed at a particular
set or location.
Knowing where framing is can save unseen stunts, gags, wardrobe,
Choker: From the neck
up. A close up
Close up / Tight: Very
close on the subject. Usually a head shot.
Cowboy: From the knees
up of the subject - refers to the day when cowboy films couldn't
afford boots for everyone
Cutaway: A single shot
inserted into a sequence of shots that momentarily interrupts the
flow of action, usually introducing a pertinent detail.
Dolly Shot: Any shot
made from a moving dolly. These may also be called tracking or traveling
Dutch Angle / Canted
Frame: Often described as 'Dutching'. This is a device or process
whereby the camera is angled so that the horizontal frame line is
not parallel to the horizon.
Establishing Shot: Usually
a long shot at the beginning of a scene which is intended to inform
the audience about a changed locale or time for the scene which
Master shot: Typically
a wide shot that comprises the full performances of a scene.
Medium Closeup: The frame
holds subject from waist up
Medium Shot: from around
the thighs up of the subject.
Over the shoulder: shooting
over the shoulder of a subject
Pick-up Shot: Reshooting
a portion of a scene, the rest of which was acceptably filmed in
a previous take.
POV: Point of view
Reaction Shot: A shot
of a player listening while another player's voice continues on
the sound track.
Single: A shot with only
one subject in the frame.
Tight: Also called Closeup.
Two Shot: Two subjects
Two T's: Framing is from
the subject's chest up.
Wide Shot: also called
a master shot.
EQUIPMENT AND OPERATION
A-Cam, B-Cam, etc - On
multiple camera setups, A-cam is typically the primary camera with
secondary cameras shooting simultaneously from different setups
Angle of View: This is
the size of the field covered by a lens, measured in degrees. However,
because of the aperture masks in film, the angle of view for a given
lens is generally described in terms of the height and width of
a lens. (Cinematography).
Aspect Ratio / Format:
The ratio of height to width of the image on camera. These lines
are typically marked out in the camera lens or masked out in front
of the lens. The typical aspect ratios are: 1:33 (TV), 1:85 (Film
/ Academy), 2.35 (Film / Anamorpic - squeezed)
Baby Legs: A short tripod.
Barndoors: Folding doors
which are mounted on to the front of a light unit in order to control
illumination and camera flare.
Burn-in Time Code: A
videotape in which a "window" displaying the time code
count on the tape is superimposed over part of lhe picture.
Camera Angle: The viewpoint
chosen from which to photograph a subject.
Camera Car: A specially
equipped vehicle (usually a car or truck) used to carry cameras
and operators for the filming of a moving vehicle or person.
Camera Wedges: Small wooden wedges, usually 4 inches long by 1/2
wide at the thickest end. (Camera)
Crane Shot: Camera is
mounted on arm or elevated platform for shots at different heights
Depth of Field: The amount
of space within lens view which will maintain acceptable focus at
given settings (i.e. camera speed, film speed, lens aperture).
Film Speed / Frame Rate:
this is typically 24fps (frames per second) for film and 30fps for
Flare: A reflection of
a light source on the leans of the camera - typically controlled
by barndoors or cutters.
Flop-over: A post effect
in which the picture is shown reversed from left to right.
Focus Pull: The refocusing
of a lens during a shot to keep a moving subject in focus or to
change the person or object of attention.
Hi-hat / Hat: low camera
Jib Arm: A mechanical
arm which is supported on a dolly, tripod, or other device, which
is counterweighted to hold a camera for an increased range of motion.
Overcrank: speeding up
the film for the effect of slow motion. With special equipment,
cameras can be overcranked to 120 fps.
Pan: A horizontal movement
of a camera on a fixed axis.
Roll: A twisting movement
of a camera on a fixed axis
Set Up: Each discrete
position of the camera, excluding those in which a dolly or crane
is used to move the camera during filming.
Steadycam: a piece of
equipment attached to the camera operator which allows the operator
to walk around with a smooth camera motion.
Sticks: camera tripod
Tilt: A Vertical movement
of a camera on a fixed axis
TV Safe: The area of
a filmed image which will normally appear on a home television set
after a film has been transferred in a telecine and then transmitted.
Undercrank: Slowing down
the film speed in order to give the effect of faster action. In
action films, this can typically be 24fps slowed to 22fps.
Video Assist / Tap: The
process of simultaneously recording filmed picture onto video tape
by means of the same lens system in order to immediately evaluate
a take as soon as it is completed.
Grips can be your best friend on set - able to help out or make
repairs on stunt equipment if needed. A little knowledge of their
lingo goes a long way.
Apple Box / Apple: A
box build of a strong wood or plywood which is capable of supporting
weight. These may be of various sizes, the smallest of which is
also known as a 'pancake' because it is nearly flat.
Accent Light: A light
unit that emphasizes one subject. This might be a key light, a kicker,
or a backlight.
Ambient Light: General,
nondirectional, room light.
Baby: Usually a reference
to a 1K light unit. It is also used to describe any light unit which
is smaller than a standard size unit of comparable intensity (i.e.
baby 1K, baby 2K, baby 5K, etc.). For grips, it refers to anything
with a 5/8 inch stud (i.e. baby plate).
Backlight: A light which
is generally mounted behind a subject to light the subject's hair
and shoulders without illuminating a subject's front.
Bag: See Sandbag.
Bazooka: Similar to a
2K stand, but without support legs. It has a junior hole at one
end and a junior stud at the other, and it usually has a sliding
Beaver Board: A 2K pigeon
on an apple box.
Beef: The output of a
Beefy Baby: A heavy duty
2K stand without wheels.
Black Wrap: Black Aluminum
foil which is used for wrapping lights, to control light spill,
and for making small flags.
Blonde: An open face
2K lighting unit, also known as a 'mighty'.
Bobbinet: Black mesh
cloth which is used for grip scrims. It also is available in rolls
for darkening windows.
Bottom Chop: A flag or
cutter which is used to keep light off of the floor or the lower
part of a scene.
Broad: A rectangular
open-faced light which is used for general fill or for cyc illumination.
Brute: A brute arc light,
usually 225 amps DC powered.
Kit): Assorted nets, silks, solids, and grifflons which are used
for light control; usually 5' x 5', or 6' x 6' frame size. Commonly
a 12' x 12' or 20' x 20' is called a butterfly kit, however, it
they should be called an overhead kit.
C-47: Ordinary wooden
clothespins which are used to secure gels to barndoors. They are
also known as a #1 wood clamp.
C Stand (Century stand):
A general purpose grip stand.
Candela: A unit of light
intensity, a standard candle.
Celo: A type of cookie
which is made from wire mesh coated with plastic.
Combo Box: A six pocket
stage box that can be converted from three-phase four-wire to single
phase three-wire operation.
Combo Stand: A heavy
duty 2K stand without wheels. It is called a combo because it can
be used for both reflectors and lights.
Cookie/Cucoloris: A perforated
material which is used to break up light or create a shadow pattern.
Also known as a cucoloris.
Crane (Cherry Picker)
A moveable vehicle with a long projected arm or boom on which a
camera is mounted and is capable of carrying the camera operator
and the director. The crane is generally used to elevate a camera
where elevated shots are required during the filming of a movie
Cup Blocks: Wooden blocks
with a dish or indentation in the center which are used to keep
the wheels of light stands from moving.
Deuce: A 2K fresnel lighting
Dimmer: A device for
varying power to the lights
Dolly: A mobile platform
with wheels that holds the camera and the camera operator and, when
necessary, the assistant camera operator.
Dolly track - something
you will inevitably trip on. This is track laid down for a camera
Duvetyne: A heavy black
cloth, treated with fire proofing material, which is used for blacking
out windows, making teasers, hiding cables & stunt pads, and
hundreds of other uses.
Feather: Moving a 'flag'
closer to or further away from a light source that it is in front
of will feather (soften/harden) the shadow on the surface upon which
the light falls.
Filter: A transparent
material having the ability to absorb certain wavelengths of light
and transmit others.
Fingers: Small flags
used to control light.
Flat: elements which
are generally used to create walls.
Flood: The widest beam
spread on a lensed light.
which is sandwiched between paper. It is used to relectors, soft
boxes, and other items because it is stable and easily cut.
Fresnel: A stepped convex
lens. It is most commonly used to descripe tungsten-incandescent
Gobo: A grip head or
"C" stand head used as a clamping device for holding other
Grip Tape: This is Duct
tape style tape, also known as gaffer's tape or cloth tape
Grip Truck: A small non-motorized
truck used by grips to carry equipment or props on a set.
Highboy: A heavy-duty
rolling stand, usually with a combo head, that has a junior receiver
and a large grip head. Also called Overhead Stands.
HMI: An enclosed, AC
mercury arc lamp.
Hollywood Box: A stage
plug-type box without fuses.
Inkie: A small (250 watt)
fresnel type light.
Japanese Lantern: A paper-covered
wire frame globe into which a socket and bulb may be placed.
Junior: A 2K fresnel
light unit. It may also mean any 1 1/8 inch spud or mounting pin
or any 1 1/8 inch female receiver.
Key Light: The main light
on a subject.
Kick: An object with
a shine or reflection on it from another object.
Lexan: A plastic sheeting
material, available in varying widths, that is optically clear and
used to protect camera personnel from explosions or the results
of other action.
Lowboy: A heavy duty
rolling stand, usually with a combo head, but without the height
of a 'highboy'.
Lowkey: A high contrast
lighting style with lost of shadows and large areas of darkness.
Maxi-Brute: A 9 light
unit with (9) 1000 watt PAR 64 lights.
Meat Axe: An grip arm-like
accessory which is designed to clamp onto the hand rail of a studio
overhead catwalk, or other suitable surface, and has a gobo head
at the end of the arm.
Mickey: An open faced
1K lighting unit. Also known as a 'Redhead'.
Nets: A bobbinet on a
frame used to cut lighting intensity by either a half stop or full
Pancake: See Applebox.
Rim: A hard backlight,
is generally on the same level as the subject, that casts more light
than the key light.
Riser: A prebuilt platform
used to raise the set, camera, or lights.
Sandbag: A burlap or
plastic bag filled with sand and used to anchor or hold equipment
and scenery in place.
Scrim: A metal 'window
screen' that can be placed in front of a lighting unit to decrease
the lighting intensity by a predetermined amount.
Senior: A 5K fresnel
Senior Stand: A braced
junior stand sufficiently rugged for large lights such as a 5K,
10K, or 'Big Eye'.
Set Dressing: Items of
decoration which are not designated in the script or by the director
as part of specific action.
Shiny Boards: A grip
reflector used for reaiming sunlight to provide a key or fill light.
Siamese: A splitter that
divides a power line into two parts.
Sider/Ear: To put a flag
or cutter up on the side of a lighting unit to block light.
Silk: A lighting diffusion
or reflective material, formerly real silk.
Spill: Light that is
escaping from the sides of a lighting unit, or any light that is
falling where it is not wanted.
Special Purpose Vehicle:
Generator truck, location vehicle, or an "all-in-one"
vehicle that is used to transport location equipment and is specially
modified to include generators, storage space, etc..
Spot: On a lensed light,
the smallest beam spread.
Stage Box: A distribution
box with six pockets for stage plug connectors.
Stinger: A single extension
cord. Most often referred to a single 'hot' extension that is left
lying around for occassional use.
Striking: The breakdown
process of a camera position, location, or set. Also refers to turning
on a light.
Take Down: Reducing the
light on an object by means of nets, scrims, dimmers or wasting
Tenner: A standard studio
10K lighting unit, as opposed to a baby 10 or a Big Eye, which are
also 10K lighting units.
Tie In: A power feed
obtained by temporarily clipping on to the main service of a location.
This methodology is illegal in many areas.
Trombone: A tubular,
extending device which is generally used for suspending lights from
Turtle: A flat, on the
floor mount, for large lights with a junior receiver.
Variac: A simmer that
reduces the voltage. It stands for VARIable AC.
Wedges: Wood wedges cut
from 2x4 lumber which is used for leveling and stablizing.
Whip: A section of feeder
cable siamesed off the main line to a secondary location.
Xenon: A high intensity
light, with a polished parabolic reflector.
ADR (dubbing or looping):
Automatic Dialog Replacement. A process of re-recording dialog in
the studio in synchronization with the picture.
Ambient noise: The total
sound in a given are which is peculiar to that space (room tone).
Boom: A telescoping arm
for a camera or microphone which might be available in a variety
of sizes from the very small handheld types to the very large, which
might be transported as an integral part of a motor vehicle.
Feed Lines: Lines of
dialogue which are read outside camera range for the benefit of
an 'on camera' or 'on microphone' actor or voice over artist.
Foley: Creating sound
effects by watching picture and mimicking the action, often with
props that do not exactly match the action.
Lavalier Mic: A small
microphone that can be easily hidden on a piece of clothing so as
not to be seen by the camera.
Looping: See ADR.
MOS: Silent filming.
Traditionally explained as Motion Omit Sound. Also believed to be
derived from the expression "mit out sound" by German
Room Tone: The "noise"
of a room, set or location where dialog is recorded during Production.
Used by film and dialog editors as a "bed" to form a continuous
tone through a particular scene. This is often confused with ambience,
which might be sound effects and/or reverberation added when the
dialog is mixed.
Shotgun Mic: A highly
directional microphone, usually with a long, tubular body; used
by the production sound mixer on location or on the set for film
and television productions.
Walla: Background ambience
or noises added to create the illusion of sound taking place outside
of the main action in a picture.
Wild Line: A line of
dialoge, recorded either on set or at a looping stage, without any
Wild Track: Audio elements
that are not recorded synchronously with the picture.
AFTRA (American Federation
of Television and Radio Artists
Box Rental: A fee or
allowance paid to a crewmember for providing his/her own equipment
or other specialized apparatus for use in a production.
Buyout: The whole shoot,
all days included, on flat rate
Call Sheet: A form which
refers to all of the scenes to be filmed and all of the personnel
and equipment required for shooting on a particular day.
Cover Set: A location
which is kept in reserve to serve as an alternate shooting site
in case the chosen shooting site is unusable. It is most commonly
used in the context of shooting planned for an out of doors location.
Dailies: The first positive
prints made by the laboratory from the negative photographed on
the previous day. It also now refers to video which is transferred
from that original negative.
Day Out of Days: A form
designating the workdays for various cast or crewmembers of a given
Day-Player: Talent that
is hired by the day.
Deal Memo: A form which
lists the pertinent details of salary, guaranteed conditions, and
other essentials of a work agreement negotiated between a member
of the cast or crew and a production company.
DGA: Director's Guild
of America. A union which represents directors, assistant directors,
production managers, and various video personnel.
Flat: Usually an agreement
to perform work or provide a service for a fixed fee or wage which
will not be affected by overtime restrictions of unexpected costs.
Holding Fee: Payment
to performers made per SAG and AFTRA talent contracts retaining
rights to use a TV commercial for an additional 13 weeks.
Local hire: hired locally,
no payment for travel expenses.
Location: a set away
from a studio.
On-Call: An actor or
crew member who may not be used for a particular shoot but must
be available. Occasionally these people are paid a fee to remain
Outtakes: Scenes shot
but not used in the final film. ("Outs.")
Pay or Play: A contract
provision which commits the production company to compensate a cast
or crew member for a project whether or not that project ever goes
Per Diem: A daily allowance
to cover expenses incurred by a member of a company while shooting
on location. Such expenses may include the cost of meals and hotel
The main photography of a film and the time period during which
it takes place.
Residual: payment for
network broadcasts. Based on a descending schedule.
Rushes: This refers to
daily prints of a film used for evaluation purposes.
SAG: Screen Actors Guild.
Union (AFL) representing actors in film and commercials. Rates for
SAG actors (until 6/30/04) $678 daily, $2525 weekly
Scale: Union rate of
pay that is determined by contract.
Spot: Colloquial term
for TV commercial. Also refers to use of commercial in local markets
(as opposed to network use).
Telecine: A machine that
transfers film to a video signal. This also generically refers to
the process of film-to-tape transfers.
Trailer: A short publicity
film which advertises a film or forthcoming presentations.
Turn Around: Amount of
time between wrap of a shoot and time you must be back on set.
Walk on: non speaking
role. Walks on to set no dialogue.
VO: Voice Over, off camera
VOC: Voice on camera. The actor's voice and face are used on camera
OC: On camera, what we see.
MOS: Mit out sound
CU: Close up
ECU: Extreme close- up
MS: Medium shot
LS: Long shot
WA: Wide angle shot
Super: Superimpose, when an image is place on another (insert)
Diss: Dissolve, when one scene blends into the next
CUT: one scene abruptly changes to another
WIPE: Line moves across a screen, another scene replaces it. (Push)
ALT: Alternate, usually in reference to alternate dialogue or scene
LOGO: Slogan or product name
SFX: Special effects
PAN: Camera moves across the screen
ANGLE ON: The person, place or thing is favored in a shot
CUT AWAY: To another spot
POV: From a person's point of view, how something is seen by him